This is everything from the Big Bang through the formation of galaxies and the solar system and onwards to the theoretical death throws of the universe. Every cosmological period will cover a vast span of time. The standard period granularity for cosmological time is bya (billion years ago).
This band covers the various geological eras, eons and periods that span the geological formation of the earth. The standard period granularity for geological time is mya (million years ago).
This is the band that covers the extent of human existence. It is also the band with the most diversity of measurement systems. Not only are there hundreds of religious calendar systems, there is also a multitude of other ways of counting such as regnal, legal and pontifical dating to deal with. This is going to be huge. The standard period granularity for historical time is the year.
This band covers the seconds, minutes and hours of our daily cycle. The standard period granularity for civil time is the second.
This band covers the very small timespans below one second. I haven’t really dug into this yet but the standard period granularity for quantum time is likely to be either the Chronon or Planck time.